Elisabeth Hauptmann (1897 – 1973) was a writer and translator who met Brecht in 1922 and became closely involved with his work. Her German translation of John Gay’s THE BEGGGAR’S OPERA formed the basis for DIE DREIGROSCHENOPER (1928) and she also contributed to Brecht’s other works including ST. JOAN OF THE STOCKYARDS. She lived in America from 1934 to 1949, where she married the composer Paul Dessau. After her return to Germany, she published Brecht’s work through Suhrkamp Verlag and worked as dramaturg for The Berliner Ensemble. In 1961, she received the Lessing Award, which the Ministry for Culture of East Germany awarded every year and in 1977 she was posthumously nominated for a Tony Award for her work on HAPPY END.